general info about Theriologia Ukrainica

Theriologia Ukrainica

ISSN 2616-7379 (print) • ISSN 2617-1120 (online)

2020 • Vol. 19 • Contents of volume >>>

download pdfEvstafiev, I. 2020. Small mammals as reservoirs and vectors of yersiniosis pathogens (Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis). Theriologia Ukrainica, 19: 115-121.


Small mammals as reservoirs and vectors of yersiniosis pathogens (Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis)


Igor Evstafiev


Crimean Republican Sanitary-Epidemiological Station (Simferopol, Ukraine)


Theriologia Ukrainica. 2020. Vol. 19: 115-121.




English, with Ukrainian summary, titles of tables, captures to figs


Yersinia infections are recorded worldwide and sapronotic natural foci of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis infections also occur in the Crimean Peninsula. Here we studied the distribution and prevalence of pathogenic Yersiniae among small mammals of the Crimean Peninsula based on results of epizootiological monitoring of natural foci infections. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica were found in 10 species of small mammals, and the average number of infected specimens in the Crimea was 0.11 ± 0.03. The highest prevalence of yersiniosis pathogens was recorded among specimens of M. socialis (4.22 %), M. spicilegus (2.06 %), C. leucodon (1.96 %), S. flavicollis (1.85 %), and S. uralensis (1.33 %). The number of small mammals that are carriers of pathogens of yersinioses varies significantly in different natural zones of the Crimean Peninsula. In the mountain-forest zone, the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica among Micromammalia is 2.94 %, in the foothills it decreases to 0.99 %, in the lowland — to 0.77 % with a lowest value of 0.62 % in steppe areas of the Kerch Peninsula. Results show a decreasing pattern of prevalence of Y. enterocolitica among small mammals from the mountain-forest zone to plain steppe. A reverse trend was revealed for the prevalence of Y. pseudo­tuberculosis among Micromammalia: 0.03 % in the mountains, 0.17 % in the foothills, and 0.25 % in the steppe. The number of trap-lines with records of Micromammalia having both infections varies from 18.3 % in the foothills to 21.3 % in the mountains and 24.8 % in the steppe zone. The portion of trap-lines with three and more infections is also high (6.7 % in the mountains and foothills and 5.5 % in the steppe). The obtained results show a wide distribution of combined foci in the Crimea. Considering that, in the peninsula, several tick-transmitted and other zoonotic infections (e.g. tick-borne encephalitis and borrelioses, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, Marseilles fever, Q fever, etc.) are widely distributed in the same areas and the pathogens of which are able to reproduce in the same small mammal species as those of yersiniosis and pseudotuberculosis, the real number of combined foci and their diversity in the Crimea could be 3 to 5 times higher.


yersiniosis, pseudotuberculosis, small mammals, prevalence, mixed infections, Crimea.



Aldova, E., K. Laznickova. 1979. Comments on the ecology and epidemiology of Yersinia enterocolitica in Czechoslovakia. Contributions to Microbiology and Immunology, 5: 122–131.
Alekseev, A. F., V. I. Chirnyi, L. M. Bogatyreva et al. 1996. Features of epizootics of tularemia in the Crimea. Journal of Microbiology, Epidemiology and Immunology, No. 6, 28–32. (In Russian)
Alekseev, A. N., L. A. Burenkova, I. S. Vasileva, E. V. Dubinina, S. P. Chunikhin. 1996. Functioning of foci of mixed tick-borne infections in the territory of Russia. Medical Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, 4: 9–16. (In Russian)
Balashov, Yu. S. 1998. Hard Ticks – Parasites and Vectors of Infections. Nauka, Saint Petersburg, 1–285. (In Russian)
Balashov, Yu. S. 2000. Terms and concepts used in population and community studies of parasites. Parasitology, 34 (5): 361–370. (In Russian)
Enteritis... 2020. Enteritis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. Internet edition "MedElement".
Epidemiological... 2009. Epidemiological surveillance and prevention of pseudotuberculosis and intestinal yersiniosis. Methodical Recommendations. MU Moscow, 1–66. (In Russian)
Epidemiology... 1990. Epidemiology, laboratory diagnostics of yersinioses, and the organisation and performance of preventive and anti-epidemic measures. Instruction No. 15-6/42. Moscow, 1–49. (In Russian)
Euzeby, J., C. Aidan. 2014. Parte: Genus Yersinia. In: List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. Abgerufen am 24. Mai 2014. (Systematik der Bakterien)
Evstafiev, I. L. 2001. Results of a twenty-year-long investigation of tick-born encephalitis in Crimea. Journal of Microbiology and Epidemiology, No. 2, 111–114. (In Russian)
Evstafiev, I. L., N. N. Tovpinets, B. N. Lezhentsev et al. 2006. Mammal fauna and zoonotic infections. Proceedings of the Theriological School, 13: 20–34. (In Russian)
Friedhoff, K. 1990. Interaction between parasite and tick vector. International Journal of Parasitology, 20 (6): 525–535.
Genus Yersinia.
Grigoryan E. V., N. N. Vorobyeva, E. I. Korenberg. 2001. Mixed infection: monocytotropic ehrlichiosis in humans with Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis. In: Clinical Prospects in Infectology. Saint Petersburg, 57–58. (In Russian)
Imnadze T., I. Natradze, E. Zhgenti, L. Malania, N, Abazashvili, K. Sidamonidze, E. Khmaladze, M. Zakalashvili, P. Imnadze, R. J. Arner, V. Motin, M. Kosoy. 2020. Identification of a novel Yersinia enterocolitica strain from bats in association with a bat die-off that occurred in Georgia (Caucasus). Microorganisms8 (7): 1000.
Karaseva, E. V., A. Yu. Telitsyna. 1996. Methods of Field Study of Mammals. Moscow, 1–240. (In Russian)
Korenberg, E. I. 1999. The relationship of pathogens of vector-borne diseases in mixed-infected ixodid ticks. Parasitology, 32 (4): 273–289. (In Russian)
Korenberg, E. I. 2001. Study and prophylactics of mixed infections transmitted by hard ticks. Annals of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 11: 41–45. (In Russian)
Kucheruk, V. V. 1952. Quantitative census of major pest rodents and shrews. In: Methods of Census of the Number and Geographical Distribution of Terrestrial Vertebrates. Moscow, 9–45. (In Russian)
Kucheruk, V. V., E. I. Korenberg. 1964. Quantitative census of major warm-blooded transmitters of disease. In: Methods of Study of Natural Foci of Human Disease. Medicine, Moscow, 129–154. (In Russian)
Litvin, V. Yu., E. I. Korenberg. 1999. Natural foci of diseases: the development of the concept at the end of the century. Parasitology, 32 (3): 179–191. (In Russian)
Markeshin, S. Ya., S. Ya. Smironova, I. L. Evstafiev. 1991. Estimation of the state of natural foci of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the Crimea. Journal of Microbiology, No. 9, 47–50. (In Russian)
Naktin, J., K. G. Beavis. 1999. Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, 19: 523–536.
Platt-Samoraj, A., J. Zmudzki, J. Pajdak-Czaus, A. Szczerba-Turek, A. Bancerz-Kisiel, Z. Procajlo, S. Labuc, W. Szweda. 2020. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 20 (8).
Popov, V. A. 1967. On standardization of census methods of mouse-like rodents and small mammals. In: Fauna and Ecology of Rodents (Materials on Rodents). Volume 8. Publ. of the Moscow State Univ., Moscow, 197–208. (In Russian)
Smirnov, I. V. 2004. The pathogen of yersiniosis and similar microorganisms. Disease and Pathogens. Yersinioses. Clinics, Microbiology, Antimicrobial chemotherapy, 6 (1): 10–21. (In Russian)
Tovpinets, N. N., I. L. Evstafiev. 2003. Natural foci of zoonotic infections in the Crimea: epizootic and epidemiological aspects. Problems of Development of the Crimea, Issue 15. Tavria-Plus, Simferopol, 94–104. (In Russian)
Wang, X., Z. Cui, D. Jin, L. Tang, S. Xia, H. Wang, Y. Xiao, H. Qiu, Q. Hao, B. Kan, J. Xu, H. Jing. 2009. Distribution of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in China. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 28: 1237–1244.


to main page of journal >>>

created: 28.08.2020
updated: 31.12.2020

Locations of visitors to this page